科学社会論特論IV(科学技術社会論特論)




担当:伊藤憲二
開講場所は変更の可能性がある。場所については担当者に問い合わせること。
開講時間:月曜3限

この授業の目的




この授業の目的は、「科学と社会」専攻の大学院生を対象とし、文献購読の基礎的なトレーニングをとくに科学技術社会論分野を中心にして行うことにある。文献を読解し、それについて批判的・分析的に論じるのは、人文社会系における必須な技能の一つである。
本専攻のカリキュラムは、一年次の実習が生命科学分野だけのものでしかないことに表れているように、生命系大学院生を主たる対象として作られているために、現時点では「科学と社会」分野における基礎演習的な授業が存在しない。そこで、このような人文社会系における基礎的技能を習得するための訓練を受ける機会に乏しく、十分な基礎能力を備えないまま、学位論文のための研究に入ってしまい、失敗する危険が極めて大きい。この授業はそのような問題点に対処しようとするものである。
 この授業では、コーネル大学などにおけるSTSの大学院プログラムの入門的セミナーをベースにし、それと同等の水準の授業を実施することを目指している。

Prerequisite



日本語と英語ができること。

その他の注意


この授業は単位数としては一単位であるが、このような意図から、人文社会系の演習の代用を目指すものであり、履修者の負担はきわめて大きくなる。とくにリーディングは一週間で読み切れるとは限らない量なので、計画的に準備すること。
下の授業日程は暫定的なものであり、種々の理由で日程を変更することがあるので必要があれば相談すること。

授業の形態




参加者全員が各々、指定された文献を見つけ、読み、討論に備えて参加するものとする。授業は文献についての討論を中心とする。
準備の過程で、それぞれの文献について、A4数枚程度のノートを作成し、それぞれの文献の主要なアーギュメント、その証拠・論拠、およびそれぞれの文献で用いられている研究方法について記述し、毎回授業の始めに提出すること。


成績評価の方法



成績評価は討論への参加と討論の質に基づいて行う。

論文・書籍



入手すべき書籍:


Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 3rd ed (University of Chicago Press).翻訳があるが、原著も持っておくこと。

David Bloor, Knowledge and Social Imagery, 2nd. ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).翻訳でも良いが入手困難。ディヴィッド・ブルア『数学の社会学』

H. M. Collins, Changing Order: Replication and Induction in Scientific Practice (London: Sage, 1985),

Steven Shapin, and Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle and the Experimental Life (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985).

Bruno Latour & Steve Woolgar, Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts, 2nd ed., (London: Sage, 1979; Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986).

Londa Schiebinger, Has Feminism Changed Science? 翻訳でもよい(シービンガー『ジェンダーは科学を変える?』シービンガー『ジェンダーは科学を変える?』)

Mario Biagioli, ed., The Science Studies Reader

入手を推奨する書籍:


Langdon Winner, The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology (University of Chicago Press). 翻訳でも良い。“Do Artefacts Have Politics?”所収;またこの論文が収められている、MacKenzie and Wajcman eds., The Social Shaping of Technology.も入手推奨。

Michel Foucault (1991) Discipline And Punish, pp. 3-31; 135-228; plates.翻訳でも良い。

S. Jasanoff et al, eds., Handbook of Science & Technology Studies, Sage: 1995.( Karin Knorr-Cetina, “Laboratory Studies: The Cultural Approach to the Study of Science,” が収められている)。

Karl Mannheim, Ideology & Utopia (New York: Harvest Books). 日本語版ではなく、英語版を入手すること。

Steve Epstein, Impure Science: Aids, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge, University of California Press, 1996. オンラインで全文読むことができるが、紙のものが読みやすい場合は入手すること。

その他論文など


Social Studies of ScienceやScience, Technology, and Human Valuesは、総研大葉山キャンパスからSage Onlineから入手することができる。
その他のものに関してはJStorで入手できるものもあるが、そうでないものもある。

個別に入手する必要のある論文(入手推奨のものを除く):
Robert K. Merton, “The Normative Structure of Science,” in pp. 267-78 in Merton, The Sociology of science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973).

Boris Hessen, ‘The Social and Economic Roots of Newton's Principia,’ in: N. I. Bukharin, et al., Science at the Crossroads: Papers from the Second International Congress of the History of Science and Technology, 1931. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science seriesに収められている。

Edgar Zilzel, “The Sociological Roots of Science, “reprinted in Social Studies of Science 30(6), 2000: 935-49. 翻訳があるが、入手困難。

Ian Hacking, 'The participant irrealist at large in the laboratory', British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 39: 277-94.

Bruno Latour, “Postmodern? No, Simply Amodern. Steps towards an Anthropology of Science: An Essay Review,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 21, 1990: 147-71.

Katheleen Jordan and Michael Lynch, “The Sociology of a Genetic Engineering Technique: Ritual and Rationality in the Performance of the Plasmid Prep,” pp. 77-114 in A. Clarke and J. Fujimura, eds., The Right Tools for the Job: At Work in Twentieth-Century Life Science (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).

Otto Sibum, “Reworking the Mechanical Value of Heat: Instruments of Precision and Gestures of Accuracy in Early Victorian England,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 26 (1995): 73-106.

Bruno Latour, “Why Has Critique Run out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern,” Critical Inquiry 30(2), 2004: 225-48.

Barry Barnes and David Bloor, “Relativism, Rationalism and the Sociology of Knowledge, ”pp. 21-47 in Martin Hollis and Steven Lukes, eds., Rationality and Relativism (MIT Press, 1982).

Susan Leigh Star, “Power, Technologies, and the Phenomenology of Conventions: On Being Allergic to Onions,” pp. 26-56 in John Law, ed., A Sociology of Monsters: Essays on Power, Technology, and Dominion (Routledge, 1991).

Brian Wynne, “May the Sheep Safely Graze? A Reflexive View of the Expert-Lay Knowledge Divide,”pp. 44-83 in Scott Lash, Bronislaw Szerszynski, & Brian Wynne, eds., Risk, Environment, and Modernity: Toward a New Ecology, Sage, 1998.

授業日程


毎週月曜日13:00−14:30

10月18日 Week 1:20世紀初めの科学史、科学哲学、科学社会学
10月25日 Week 2:クーン
11月 1日  Week 3:ストロングプログラムとSSK
11月8日 Week 4:初期近代におけるSSK研究
11月15日 Week 5:実験室研究

11月28日 Week 6:アクターネットワーク理論
12月 6日 Week 7:技術論
12月13日 Week 8:知識と営為の伝達と境界
12月20日 Week 9:科学と視覚化
1月17日 Week 10:ジェンダーと科学
1月24日 Week 11:植民地と非西洋科学
1月31日 Week 12:科学と権力
2月7日 Week 13:科学と市民と参加

授業内容



Week1 20世紀初めの科学史、科学哲学、科学社会学



Robert K. Merton, “The Normative Structure of Science,” in pp. 267-78 in Merton, The Sociology of science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973).

Karl Popper, “A Survey of Some Fundamental Problems,” Ch. 1. Of Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (Routlege, 1992).翻訳あり『科学的発見の論理』上(恒星社厚生閣)


Rupert Hall, “Merton Revisited or Science and Society in the Seventeenth Century,” History of Science 2, 1963: 1-16.
http://www.history.ubc.ca/index2.php?option=com_resource&task=show_file&id=24940

Boris Hessen, ‘The Social and Economic Roots of Newton's Principia,’ in: N. I. Bukharin, et al., Science at the Crossroads: Papers from the Second International Congress of the History of Science and Technology, 1931. 翻訳あり『ニュートン力学の形成:「プリンキピア」の社会的経済的根源』(法政大学出版局、1986)

Karl Mannheim, Ideology & Utopia (New York: Harvest Books). “The sociology of Knowledge: the Sociological Concept of Thought” この本の日本語訳はあるが、英語版で読むこと。

Edgar Zilzel, “The Sociological Roots of Science, “reprinted in Social Studies of Science 30(6), 2000: 935-49. 翻訳あり

Pierre Bourdieu, The specificity of the scientific field and the social conditions of the progress of reason.', Social Science Information, 14, 1975:19-47. Excerpted in Biagioli (1999) Science Studies Reader, pp. 31-50.


Week 2 クーン



Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 3rd ed (University of Chicago Press)
まず翻訳で読み、次に原文で読むこと


Week 3 ストロングプログラムとSSK



Barry Barnes and David Bloor, “Relativism, Rationalism and the Sociology of Knowledge, ”pp. 21-47 in Martin Hollis and Steven Lukes, eds., Rationality and Relativism (MIT Press, 1982).

David Bloor, Knowledge and Social Imagery, 2nd. ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).翻訳あり

H. M. Collins, Changing Order: Replication and Induction in Scientific Practice (London: Sage, 1985), Chs. 2-4.

Steven Shapin, “History of Science and Its Sociological Reconstructions,” in History of Science 20 (1982), 157-211. http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/3353814/Shapin_History.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1

Week 4 初期近代におけるSSK研究



Steven Shapin, and Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle and the Experimental Life (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985).

Mario Biagioli, “Galileo the Emblem Maker,” Isis 81, 1990: 230-58.

Week5 実験室研究



Bruno Latour & Steve Woolgar, Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts, 2nd ed., (London: Sage, 1979; Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986).

Karin Knorr-Cetina, “Laboratory Studies: The Cultural Approach to the Study of Science,” pp. 140-166 in S. Jasanoff et al, eds., Handbook of Science & Technology Studies, Sage: 1995.

Alberto Cambrosio and Peter Keating (1988) ''Going monoclonal': Art, science, and magic in the day-to-day use of hybridoma technology', Social Problems, 35: 244-60.
Jstor http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=socialproblems

Ian Hacking, 'The participant irrealist at large in the laboratory', British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 39: 277-94.

Week 6 アクター・ネットワーク理論



Michael Callon, “Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of Scallops and the Fishermen of St. Brieuc Bay”(abridged from 1986), pp. 67-83 in Mario Biagioli, ed., The Science Studies Reader.

Bruno Latour, “Give Me a Laboratory and I Will Raise the World,” (abridged from 1983) pp. 265-75 in Biagioli ed., The Science Studies Reader. (Originally in Science Observed) .

Bruno Latour, Science in Action (Harvard University Press, 1987), Introduction, Chaps, 1, 2, 6. .

Bruno Latour, “Postmodern? No, Simply Amodern. Steps towards an Anthropology of Science: An Essay Review,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 21, 1990: 147-71. .

Susan Leigh Star, “Power, Technologies, and the Phenomenology of Conventions: On Being Allergic to Onions,” pp. 26-56 in John Law, ed., A Sociology of Monsters: Essays on Power, Technology, and Dominion (Routledge, 1991).

Week 7技術論



Trevor Pinch and Wiebe Bijker, “The Social Construction of Facts and Artefacts: Or, how the Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Technology Might Benefit Each Other,” Social Studies of Science 14(3): 339-441. (Also in Bijker, Hughes and Pinch, eds., The Social Construction of Technological Systems 1987). Sage Online.

Langdon Winner, “Do Artefacts Have Politics?”in Winner, The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology (University of Chicago Press); Also in MacKenzie and Wajcman eds., The Social Shaping of Technology.翻訳あり

Thomas P. Hughes, “The Evolution of Large Technological Systems,” pp. 51-82 in Bijker, Hughes, and Pinch eds, The Social Construction of Technological Systems. Also in Biagioli. ed. Science Studies Reader.

Donald MacKenzie, “Nuclear Missile Testing and the Social Construction of Accuracy,”(abridged from 1990), inpp. 342-357, Biagioli, ed., Science Studies Reader.
Trevor Pinch and Ronald Kline, “Users as Agents of Technological Change: The Social Construction of the Automobile in the Rural United States,” Technology and Culture 37, 1996: 763-95.

Bruno Latour, “Where are the Missing Masses? The Sociology of a Few Mundane Artifacts,” in pp. 225-258 in Wiebe Bijker and John Law eds., Shaping Technology/Building Society, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1994. .

Week 8: 知識と営為の伝達と境界


H. M. Collins, “The TEA Set: Tacit Knowledge and Scientific Networks,” in Biagioli, Science Studies Reader,

Katheleen Jordan and Michael Lynch, “The Sociology of a Genetic Engineering Technique: Ritual and Rationality in the Performance of the Plasmid Prep,” pp. 77-114 in A. Clarke and J. Fujimura, eds., The Right Tools for the Job: At Work in Twentieth-Century Life Science (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).

Otto Sibum, “Reworking the Mechanical Value of Heat: Instruments of Precision and Gestures of Accuracy in Early Victorian England,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 26 (1995): 73-106.

Bruno Latour, 'The 'pédofil' of Boa Vista: A photo-philosophical montage', Common Knowledge, 1995, 4: 144-87. Reprinted in Latour, Pandora’s Hope (1999). .

Thomas Gieryn “Boundary-Work and the Demarcation of Science from Non-Science: Strains and Interests in Professional ideologies of Scientists,” American Sociological Review 1983, 48(6): 781-95.

Susan Leigh Star and James R. Griesemer, “Institutional Ecology, ‘Translation,’ and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1989, 1907-39,” Social Studies of Science 19: 387-420; reprinted in Biagioli, Science Studies Reader, pp.505-24.

Peter Galison, ‘Trading Zone: Coordinating Action and Belief, in Biagioli, Science Studies Reader, pp. 137-60. Excerpted from Galison, Image and Logic (University of Chicago Press, 1997),

Week 9: 科学と視覚化



Martin Rudwick, ‘The Emergence of a Visual Language for Geological Science 1760-1840’, History of Science 14 (1976), 149-95.

Bruno Latour,“Visualization and Cognition: Thinking with Eyes and Hands,” Knowledge & Society, 6: 1-40. (Also appears under the title, ‘Drawing Things  Together,’ in M. Lynch & S. Woolgar (eds.), Representation in Scientific Practice (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986).

Michael Lynch, “Discipline and the material form of images: an analysis of scientific visibility,” Social Studies of Science, 1985, 15: 37-66.

Lorraine Daston, "Objectivity and the Escape from Perspective,"pp. 110-123 in Biagioli, Science Studies Reader.

Robert M. Brain and M. Norton Wise, "Muscles and Engines: Indicator Diagrams and Helmholtz's Graphical Methods,"pp. 51-66 in Biagioli ed. Science Studies Reader.


Week 10 ジェンダーと科学


Evelyn Fox Keller, “The Gender/Science System: Or, Is Sex to Gender as Nature is to Science?” (orig. 1987), pp. 234-242 in Biagioli, The Science Studies Reader.

Donna Harawa, “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective,” Feminist Studies 1988, 14(3): 575-99; reprinted in Haraway (1991), Simians, Cyborgs, and Women, pp.183-203; and in Biagioli (1999), The Science Studies Reader, pp. 172-88.

Sandra Harding, “Feminist Standpoint Epistemology” (orig. 1991), in Muriel Lederman and Ingrid Bartsch (eds.), The Gender and Science Reader, pp.145-68.

Sergio Sismondo, ‘The Scientific Domains of Feminist Standpoints’, Perspectives on Science 3 (1995), pp. 49-65.

Londa Schiebinger, Has Feminism Changed Science? 翻訳あり(シービンガー『ジェンダーは科学を変える?』シービンガー『ジェンダーは科学を変える?』)

Karen Barad, “Agential Realism: Feminist Interventions in Understanding Scientific Practices,” in Biagioli, The Science Studies Reader, pp. 1-11.

Alison Wylie, “The Engendering of Archeology: Reconfiguring Feminist Science Studies” (abridged from 1997), in Biagioli, The Science Studies Reader, pp. 553-67.

Week 11 植民地と非西洋科学



Bryan Pfaffenberger, The Harsh Faces of Hydraulics: Technology and Society in Sri Lanka’s Colonization Schemes’, Technology and Culture 1990, 31 (July): 361-397.

Judith Carney, “Landscapes of Technology Transfer: Rice Cultivation and African Continuities,” Technology and Culture, 1996 (January): 5-35.

Roger Hart, “On the Problem of Chinese Science,” in Biagioli, The Science Studies Reader, pp. 189-201.

Warwick Anderson, “Introduction: Special Issue on Postcolonial Technoscience,” Social Studies of Science 32, 2002: 5-6 (October-December 2002): 643-658.

Vincanne Adams, “Randomized Controlled Crime: Postcolonial Sciences in Alternative  Medicine Research,” Social Studies of Science 32, 2002: 659-90. Sage Online

Gabrielle Hecht, “Rupture-Talk in the Nuclear Age: Conjugating Colonial Power in Africa,” Social Studies of Science 32, 2002: 691-727. Sage Online

Nicolas B. King, “Security, Disease, Commerce: Ideologies of Postcolonial Global Health,” Social Studies of Science 32, 2002: 5-6: 763-789. Sage Online.


Week 12 科学と権力



Michel Foucault (1991) Discipline And Punish, pp. 3-31; 135-228; plates. 翻訳あり

Ian Hacking, “Making up People,” in Biagioli, Science Studies Reader, pp. 161-70. Originally in Thomas C. Heller et. al (eds.), Reconstructing Individualism : Autonomy, Individuality, and the Self in Western Thought (Stanford UP, 1986), pp. 222-36.

P. Scott, E. Richards and B. Martin, “Captives of Controversy: The Myth of the Neutral Social Researcher in Contemporary Scientific Controversies,” Science, Technology, and Human Values 15: 474-94, together with H. M. Collins, ‘Captives and Victims: Response to Scott, Richards and Martin’, ST&HV 16 (1991), pp. 249-51, immediately followed by S, R & M’s response. Sage Online

Sheila Jasanoff, “Beyond Epistemology: Relativism and Engagement in the Politics of Science,” Social Studies of Science 26, 1996: 393-418.Sage Online

Bruno Latour, “Why Has Critique Run out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern,” Critical Inquiry 30(2), 2004: 225-48. .

Theodore Porter, “Quantification and the Accounting Ideal of Science,” in Biagioli, Science Studies Reader, pp. 394-406. Also see Porter, Trust in Numbers (1995).

Paul Rabinow, “Artificiality and Enlightenment: From Sociobiology to Biosociality,” in Biagioli, Science Studies Reader, pp. 407-16.

Week 13 科学と市民と参加



Brian Wynne, “May the Sheep Safely Graze? A Reflexive View of the Expert-Lay Knowledge Divide,”pp. 44-83 in Scott Lash, Bronislaw Szerszynski, & Brian Wynne, eds., Risk, Environment, and Modernity: Toward a New Ecology, Sage, 1998.

Steve Epstein, Impure Science: Aids, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge, University of California Press, 1996.
http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft1s20045x&brand=ucpress

H.M. Collins and Rob Evans, “The Third Wave of Science Studies: Studies of Expertise and Experience”, Social Studies of Science, 2002, 32, 235-296. Sage Online

Brian Wynne, ‘Misunderstood Misunderstandings: Social Identities and the Public Uptake of Science’, in Alan Irwin and Brian Wynne (ed.), Misunderstanding Science? The Public Reconstruction of Science and Technology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 19-46.